Special topics of genetics

Triantafyllidis Alexandros, Drosopoulou Eleni

Description

Modern technical analysis of genomes and genetic polymorphism will be presented during the course. In particular, the content of the course includes lectures related to genetic and physical maps of high resolution analysis, programs of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, Comparative and Functional Genomics, Extranuclear Inheritance, and transposable elements.

 

 

Course code: OCRS474
Category: Βιολογίας » Προπτυχιακό
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CC - Attribution-ShareAlike

Course Units

  1. Introduction
  2. Terminology
  3. Model organisms
  4. The increase of genome data
  5. A new era for genomics and human studies
  6. Examples of large genome studies  

 

Keywords: Genome, Bioinformatics, Cost of sequencing, -omics, Model organisms

  1. Aims of study
  2. DNA – The carrier of genetic information
  3. Problems in sequencing and treatment methods
  4. Chromosomal, Genetic, physical maps and sequencing maps (and Exercises)
  5. New sequencing machines
  6. Assembling and storing data
  7. The future of analyses
  8. Finding genes in genomes sequences

 

Keywords: Genomic maps, polymorphism and errors in sequencing, hierarchical method of sequencing, whole genome approach, sequence tagged sites (STS), next generation sequencing

  1. Genomes of prokaryotic organisms
  2. Metagenomic programs
  3. Genomes of eukaryotic organisms
  4. Overall Genomic Analysis of Biodiversity

 

Keywords: The tree of life, arcaea, metagenomes, yeast, nematodes, Drosophila, Arabidopsis, rat, biodiversity

  1. The human genome
  2. Applications and Aims
  3. Conclusions
  4. Organization of genes
  5. Enhancement of genetic diversity

 

Keywords: Protein genes, RNA genes, gene organization, family genes, ENCODE project

  1. Comparative Genomics – An introduction
  2. Identification of gene function
  3. Study of synteny
  4. Genome duplications
  5. The minimal genome
  6. The origin of the eukaryotic genome
  7. Repetitive sequences
  8. Transposable elements
  9. Horizontal gene transfer
  10. Increasing the complexity of the proteome

 

Keywords: Orthlogs, paralogs, onologs, homologs genes, synteny,Whole genome duplication (WGD), Mycoplasma laboratorium, Synthetic Biology, repetitive DNA, horizontal gene transfer, complexity of the proteome

  1. Functional Genomics – An Introduction
  2. First-generation sequencing platforms
  3. Second-generation sequencing platforms
  4. Third-generation sequencing platforms
  5. Comparison of sequencing platforms
  6. DNA Arrays
  7. Mass spectrometer machines

 

Keywords: Automated sequencers, 454 Roche, Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, Ion Torrent, sequencing of a single cell, complexity of the genome, cost of sequencing, DNA microarrays, oligo arrays, diagnosis of diseases, Mass spectrometer

  1. mRNA analysis in genomics
  2. Analysis of SNP polymorphisms
  3. Others applications of NGS machines
  4. The use of high resolution platforms in proteomics  

 

Keywords: serial analysis of gene expression, massive parallel signature sequence, semi-quantitative analyses, epigenetic analyses, biomonitoring, proteomics

  1. Extranuclear inheritance
  2. Mitochondrial DNA
  3. Chloroplastic DNA
  4. Origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts
  5. Criteria
  6. Examples
  7. Exclusions to maternal inheritance
  8. Mitochondrial diseases
  9. Epigenetic inheritance
  10. Infectious hereditary
  11. Maternal effect

 

Keywords: Extranuclear inheritance – mitochondria/ chloroplasts, Mitochondrial genetic code, Endosymbiotic theory, maternal inheritance, mitochondrial diseases, epigenetic changes, Gene dose compensation

  1. Introduction
  2. Transposable elements in prokaryotes
  3. Transposable elements in eukaryotes
  4. Biological significance of transposable elements

 

Keywords: Transposable elements, Bacterial Insertion sequences, Transposons, Plasmids of multiple resistance, Retrotransposons, Ρ-transposable elements, LINES, SINES

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