ΔιδάσΜαρία Λαζαρίδουκουσα: Μαρία Λαζαρίδου, Καθηγήτρια

Maria Lazaridou, Professor, Department of Zoology,  School of Biology
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

CV available at




Συνεργάτης Ανάπτυξης Περιεχομένου: Διονύσιος Λατινόπουλος

Open Courses Assosiate: Dionissios Latinopoulos


The content of this course is based on the Module
under Socrates (MOD), an Open Distance Course, titled: “Monitoring and
amelioration of surface water bodies according to the Directive 2000/60/EC”
Funded by




with Agreement number:

Course Syllabus

Περιεχόμενο μαθήματος

Ευαισθητοποίηση για την προστασία και διαχείριση των υδατικών οικοσυστημάτων:

  1. Εισαγωγή
  2. Οδηγία Πλαίσιο για τα νερά
  3. Υδρολογία και Οικολογία Ρεόντων υδάτων και υγροτόπων
  4. Ανθρωπογενής Επίδραση στην υδρομορφολογία των ρεόντων υδάτων και στην Ποιότητα του νερού
  5. Παρακολούθηση
  6. Αποκατάσταση και Αυτοκαθαρισμός των ποταμών
  1. Φύσικο-Χημικά χαρακτηριστικά (φως, θερμοκρασία, κίνηση του νερού Ο2, CO2, Ιόντα και pH, θρεπτικά, θειούχες ενώσεις, αγωγιμότητα, διαλυμένα στερεά, ολικά αιωρούμενα στερεά, αλατότητα κ.α.)
  2. Οργανισμοί και μέθοδοι συλλογής (βένθος, πλαγκτό, νηκτό και μακρόφυτα)
  3. Τροφικά πλέγματα και παραγωγικότητα
  4. Ρύπανση και μελέτη ειδικών περιπτώσεων
  5. Διαχείριση και Αποκατάσταση

Course contents

Awareness on protection and management of freshwater ecosystems:

  1. Introduction
  2. Water Framework Directive
  3. Hydrology and Ecology of Running Waters and Wetlands
  4. Anthropogenic Influences on running water hydromorphology and water quality
  5. Monitoring
  6. Restoration and River Self purification
  1. Physicochemical characteristics (light, temperature, water movement, O2, CO2, ions + pH, nutrients + sulphur + conductivity, TDS, TSS, salinity etc.)
  2. Organisms and sampling methods (benthos + plankton + nekton + macrophytes)
  3. Food webs - Productivity
  4. Pollution and studies of special cases
  5. Management and Restoration

Course Objecives/Goals

Μαθησιακοί στόχοι

Γνώση της βασικής δομής και της λειτουργίας των ποταμών εστιάζοντας σε υδρομορφολογικά, χημικά και βιολογικά στοιχεία όπως αυτά απαιτούνται από την Ευρωπαϊκή Οδηγία Πλαίσιο για τα νερά (2000/60/EC) για την εκτίμηση και παρακολούθηση της οικολογικής κατάστασης των συστημάτων επιφανειακών νερών.  Μετά την επιτυχή ολοκλήρωση του μαθήματος ο φοιτητής θα είναι σε θέση να  χρησιμοποιεί πολυόργανα για μετρήσεις πεδίου, να αντιληφθεί τις δειγματοληψίες πεδίου, να αναγνωρίζει είδη φυτοπλαγκτού, ζωοπλαγκτού και μακροασπονδύλων, να χρησιμοποιεί βιοτικούς δείκτες, να έρθει σε επαφή με εξειδικευμένο λογισμικό για στατιστικές αναλύσεις, να χρησιμοποιεί βιβλιογραφία για να αναλύει και να παρουσιάζει σχετικά θέματα, εργαζόμενος μόνος ή σε ομάδες.


Course Objectives/Goals

Knowledge of the fundamental structure and function of rivers and lakes focusing on the hydromorphological, chemical and biological elements required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) for the evaluation and monitoring of the ecological status of freshwaters. After the successful completion of the course, the student will have obtained skills as the use of field polymeters, realise field sampling, perform species identification of phytoplankton, zooplankton and macroinvertebrate organisms, use of biotic indices, use of specialised software (for statistical analyses), use of bibliography, analysing, writing and presenting relative subjects and working individually or in groups.

Prerequisities/Prior Knowledge


Δεν υπάρχουν προαπαιτούμενες γνώσεις.


Expected prior knowledge/prerequisites and preparation





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  4. Agense de L’Eau Rhone-Méditerranée-Corse (1997).  Indice Biologique Global Adapté (I.B.G.A.) aux grand cours d'eau et aux riviéres profondes. Protocole expérimental. Cabinet GAY Environnement, Grenoble.
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Directive containing measures included in the programme of measures (annex VI, Part A)

  • Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC)
  • Birds Directive (79/409/EEC) amended in Directive (97/49/EC)
  • Drinking Water Directive (80/778/EEC as amended by Directive 98/83/EEC)
  • Environment Impact Assessment Directive (85/337/EEC)
  • Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC)
  • Integrated Pollution Prevention Control Directive (96/61/EC), amended by Directive (98/15/EC)
  • Major Accidents Directive (96/82/EC)
  • Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC)
  • Plant Protection Products Directive (91/1414/EEC) amended by Directive (98/47/EEC)
  • Sewage Sludge Directive (86/278/EEC)
  • Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC), amended in directive (98/47/EC)


Directives that establish emission limit values and environmental qulaity standards (Annex IX)

  • Cadium Discharge Directive (83/513/EEC)
  • Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC)
  • Dangerous Substance Discharges Directive (86/280/EEC)
  • Hexachlorocyclohexane Discharge Directive (84/491/EEC)
  • Mercury Directive (84/156/EEC)
  • Mercury Discharges Directive (82/176/EEC)


Other related directives

  • Directive (79/869/EEC) concerning the methods of measurement and frequencies of sampling and analysis of surface water intended for the abstraction of drinking water
  • Exchange of Information Directive (77/795/EEC)
  • Fish Life Directive (78/659/EEC)
  • Groundwater Directive (80/68/EEC)
  • Shellfish Waters Directive (79/923/EEC), amended by Directive (91/692/EEC)
  • Surface Water Abstraction Directive (75/440/EEC)


Council Decisions and regulations

  • Technical guidance document in support of Commission Directive (93/67/EEC)